Infertility is the inability to get conceived even after one year of unprotected sex and has now become a very common problem among young couples. The advancement in science and technology provide a chance for such couples to become parents through in vitro fertilization.
In vitro fertilization is an assisted reproductive method in which a woman’s egg and men’s sperm are united out side the human body in an artificial condition and the resulting pre-embryo is then inserted in to the uterus to implant and develop.
Process of In Vitro Fertilization
Stimulate the Development of Healthy Eggs
Fertility drugs are given to the woman to induce ovulation and to develop multiple eggs during a cycle. Multiple eggs are necessary because some of the eggs developed may not be fertile. Ultrasound scanning, blood test, urine test etc are done to monitor the egg ripening.
Egg Retrieval and Sperm Collection
With the help of ultrasound imaging egg is retrieved from the ovary through a surgical procedure in which a hollow needle in inserted in to the ovary through pelvic region. The matured eggs are then removed through this hollow needle and are called follicular aspiration.
The patient is given mild sedation and local anesthetic to avoid any discomfort. The patient can leave the hospital after a shot rest. Mean while the sperms are collected through normal ejaculation process and stored under appropriate condition.
The fluid obtained from the ovary is closely examined by an embryologist and isolate healthy eggs which are then kept under optimal condition in laboratory. Then embryologist places the sperms with the eggs to fertilize the eggs. The fertilized eggs then divide 2 to 3 times to form the pre-implantation embryos or pre-embryos. These pre-embryos are then stored in laboratory dishes in a nutrient mixture that provide condition similar to that of fallopian tube.
The pre-embryo thus formed is then transferred to the woman’s uterus in 1 to 6 days. Mostly it is done on second or third day. A speculum is used to expose the cervix and the pre determined number of embryos is then gently placed in the uterus through a catheter and suspended in fluid. This method is usually painless but the woman needs to take rest after the procedure.A blood test or ultra sound scanning is helps to determine pregnancy and implantation.